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Zeitschriftenbeitrag (peer-reviewed)

2021

Mempel, H.; Jüttner, I.; Wittmann, S. (2021): The potentials of indoor farming for plant production. Automatisierungstechnik 69 (4), S.287-296.
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Plant production in indoor farming systems offers significant advantages compared to open field orgreenhouse production systems. Especially in terms of quality and the ability for automation the system is superior to the conventional production systems. Concerning resource consumption indoor farming has considerable advantages in regard to water consumption and the use of pesticides.The main disadvantage is the high consumption of electrical energy. Taking advantage of the specific benefits or eliminating the disadvantages, for example by using renewable energies, different potentials and fields of application for indoorfarming arise.The paper outlines the potentials and future fields of application of indoor farming considering the specific differences to conventional production systems related to resource consumption, quality and automation.

Wittmann, S.; Jüttner, I.; Spence, M.; Mempel, H. (2021): Indoor Vertical Farming: konsequente Weiterentwicklung des geschützten Anbaus. Jahrbuch Agrartechnik 2021 (Band 32), S.1-15.
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Climate change and increasing global urbanization accelerate the expansion of protected cultivation systems. However, certain dependences to external weather conditions remain even in modern greenhouses. Indoor vertical farming, on the other hand, pursues complete inde-pendence from external weather conditions with the aim for highly accurate control of all crop parameters. Particularly with regard to the advancing climate change and the need for sustainable resource consumption, there are clear advantages due to the year-round and independent cultivation of plants and raw materials under optimal conditions. The complexity in the optimal networking of the plant-technology systems offers intensive development opportunities for dig-itization and interdisciplinary collaboration.

Goisser, S.; Wittmann, S.; Mempel, H. (2021): Food-scanner applications in the fruit and vegetable sector. Landtechnik 76 (1), S.52-67.
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In the past few years, portable and smartphone-based diagnostic technologies have found their way into the agri-food industry. The aim of this research was to evaluate the perfor-mance of portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers, so called food-scanners, with regard to their predictive accuracy of important quality parameters of fruit and vegetables. Food-scan-ner measurements were performed in combination with destructive measurements of the corresponding quality trait (sugar content, dry matter, relative water content) on a wide range of produce from the fruit and vegetable assortment. This study evaluated dry matter content of apple, avocado, blueberry, table grape and tangerine, which yielded cross validation re-sults (r²) of up to 0.95, 0.87, 0.94, 0.92 and 0.92 respectively. Furthermore, the evaluation of food-scanner spectra for the prediction of sugar content of blueberry, kiwi, mango, persim-mon, table grape, tangerine and tomato yielded cross validations (r²) of up to 0.95, 0.84, 0.80, 0.75, 0.95, 0.93, and 0.87. Furthermore, relative water content of ginger obtained a cross val-idation correlation of r² = 0.91. The results show that these traits can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy using non-destructive measurements performed with three commercially available food-scanners SCiOTM, F-750 Produce Quality Meter, and H-100F. Consequently, food-scanners can be used as objective measurement tools along the supply chain of fresh produce to quickly determine fruit quality. In addition, a practical example shows the poten-tial of these instruments for non-destructive quality assessment in incoming goods control at fruit and vegetable wholesalers over a time period of several weeks. Furthermore, possible areas of application of food-scanners along the supply chain of fresh produce are discussed, possibilities for practical applications are presented and time-saving means are highlightedLANDTECHNIK 76(1), 2021, 52–67Food-scanner applications in the fruit and vegetable sectorSimon Goisser, Sabine Wittmann, Heike MempelIn the past few years, portable and smartphone-based diagnostic technologies have found their way into the agri-food industry. The aim of this research was to evaluate the perfor-mance of portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers, so called food-scanners, with regard to their predictive accuracy of important quality parameters of fruit and vegetables. Food-scan-ner measurements were performed in combination with destructive measurements of the corresponding quality trait (sugar content, dry matter, relative water content) on a wide range of produce from the fruit and vegetable assortment. This study evaluated dry matter content of apple, avocado, blueberry, table grape and tangerine, which yielded cross validation re-sults (r²) of up to 0.95, 0.87, 0.94, 0.92 and 0.92 respectively. Furthermore, the evaluation of food-scanner spectra for the prediction of sugar content of blueberry, kiwi, mango, persim-mon, table grape, tangerine and tomato yielded cross validations (r²) of up to 0.95, 0.84, 0.80, 0.75, 0.95, 0.93, and 0.87. Furthermore, relative water content of ginger obtained a cross val-idation correlation of r² = 0.91. The results show that these traits can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy using non-destructive measurements performed with three commercially available food-scanners SCiOTM, F-750 Produce Quality Meter, and H-100F. Consequently, food-scanners can be used as objective measurement tools along the supply chain of fresh produce to quickly determine fruit quality. In addition, a practical example shows the poten-tial of these instruments for non-destructive quality assessment in incoming goods control at fruit and vegetable wholesalers over a time period of several weeks. Furthermore, possible areas of application of food-scanners along the supply chain of fresh produce are discussed, possibilities for practical applications are presented and time-saving means are highlighted.

2020

Wittmann, S.; Jüttner, I.; Mempel, H. (2020): Indoor Farming Marjoram Production—Quality, Resource Efficiency, and Potential of Application . Agronomy 10 (11), S.1769.
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Indoor vertical farming offers great opportunities regarding a sustainable and consistent production of high-quality herbs and raw materials all year round for the perfume, chemical, or food industry. Cultivation takes place in an enclosed structure, operating predominantly independent from external conditions in multi-layer systems equipped with artificial lighting, enabling extremely high resource use efficiencies with a simultaneous increase in yield. On the other hand, field production in terms of plant quality and harvesting times is highly influenced by environmental conditions, making it difficult to maintain homogenous raw material qualities throughout the year. To show how different light qualities affect the overall efficiency and quality of Origanum majorana grown in an indoor farm, the resource consumption, yield, and cultivation time as well as the essential oil quantity was analyzed, and the efficiencies in terms of energy and land use efficiency calculated. The experimental setup clearly demonstrated that the yield regarding fresh as well as dry matter and oil content was comparable to one square meter of open field production. Based on this, the multi-layer system and the noticeable lowered growth period result in a significantly higher area efficiency compared to the open field, leading to a potential increase of annual yields of dried leave weight and oil contents by up to 21 times. It was also shown that a white spectrum (W) showed similar influence on plant growth and yield as a spectrum consisting of blue and red (B/R). Nevertheless, the LED treatment W did show higher light use efficiencies as well as a better working conditions inside the cultivation chamber. By an integration of indoor vertical farming into existing industrial processes, new and innovative opportunities for a flexible and low-risk supply chain seem feasible and according to German food industry meet the interests of existing stakeholders.

Goisser, S.; Wittmann, S.; Fernandes, M.; Mempel, H.; Ulrichs, C. (2020): Comparison of colorimeter and different portable food-scanners for non-destructive prediction of lycopene content in tomato fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 167 (111232), S.1-8.
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Lycopene, the red colored carotenoid in tomatoes, has various health benefits for humans due to its capability of scavenging free radicals. Traditionally, the quantification of lycopene requires an elaborate extraction process combined with HPLC analysis within the laboratory. Recent studies focused simpler methods for determining lycopene and utilized spectroscopic measurement methods. The aim of this study was to compare non-destructive methods for the prediction of lycopene by using color values from colorimeter measurements and Vis/NIR spectra recorded with three commercially available and portable Vis/NIR spectrometers, so called food-scanners. Tomatoes of five different ripening stages (green to red) as well as tomatoes stored up to 22 days after harvest were used for modeling. After measurement of color values and collection of Vis/NIR spectra the corresponding lycopene content was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Applying exponential regression models yielded very good prediction of lycopene for color values L*, a*, a*/b* and the tomato color index of 0.94, 0.90, 0.90 and 0.91, respectively. Color value b* was not a suitable predictor for lycopene content, whereas the (a*/b*)² value had the best linear fit of 0.87. In comparison to color measurements, the cross-validated prediction models developed for all three food-scanners had coefficients of determination (r²CV) ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. Food-scanners also can be used for additional measurements of internal fruit quality, and therefore have great potential for fruit quality assessment by measuring a multitude of important fruit traits in one single scan.

Goisser, S.; Mempel, H.; Bitsch, V. (2020): Food-Scanners as a Radical Innovation in German Fresh Produce Supply Chains. International Journal on Food System Dynamics 11 (2), S.101-116.
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Originally advertised as tools for end-consumers, portable food-scanners have recently reached a high level of awareness and show potential as instruments for quality assessment along fruit and vegetable supply c hains. The current study explores preferences and concerns of chain actors regarding the implementation of this technology through semi-structured interviews. Results indicate that food-scanners could facilitate quality control at different levels of the fresh produce supply chain by providing fast, non-destructive and objective measurements. Concerns about the application of food-scanners could be identified with respect to potential additional requirements of fruit wholesaler resulting in more pressure on producers. To further a goal-oriented and user-directed development of this new technology, future research should be directed at its impacts on perception of fruit quality along the chain as well as end-consumers’ readiness to use these devices in everyday life.

2019

Mempel, H.; Wittmann, S. (2019): Potential and use of artificial lighting in horticulture. Light and Engineering 2019 (27), S.31-41.

The use of supplemental lighting in horticulture is continuously increasing. Compared to HPS luminaires LED have significant advantages like the possibility of a targeted compilation of the spectrum, the use of dimmable and dynamic adaptable luminaires, the insensitivity to the switching frequency, less heat radiation and the and the high energy efficiency. Experiments with monochromatic lighting show potentials for influencing various quality factors with specialized light spectra in order to reach the targeted plant quality. However, many questions are still open, resulting in a rather low transfer rate of specific lighting strategies in the applied horticulture. Beneficial effects of interlighting were shown in greenhouse experiments and their potentials discussed. In the future higher requirements on plant and fruit quality and a sustainable use of resources will result in a greater importance for specialized lighting strategies and advanced technological solutions.

Goisser, S.; Krause, J.; Fernandes, M.; Mempel, H. (2019): Determination of tomato quality attributes using portable NIR-sensors. 4th International Conference on Optical Characterization of Materials (OCM), March 13th - 14th, 2019, Karlsruhe, Germany, S.1-12.
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Each material has its own specific spectral signature independent if it is food, plastics, or minerals. During the conference we will discuss new trends and developments in material characterization. You also will be informed about latest highlights to identify spectral footprints and their realizations in industry.

2018

Wittmann, S.; Mempel, H. (2018): Anwendung der Chlorophyllfluoreszenz im Gewächshaus zur Erkennung von Salzstress an Lycopersicon esculentum L. ‘Tastery’. DGG-Proceedings Vol. 8 (2018) (6), S.1-5.
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Goisser, S.; Fernandes, M.; Ulrichs, C.; Mempel, H. (2018): Non-destructive measurement method for a fast quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables by using food-scanner. DGG-Proceedings 8 (13), S.1-5.
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2016

Schwend, T.; Prucker, D.; Peisl, S.; Nitsopoulos, A.; Mempel, H. (2016): The rosmarinic acid content of basil and borage correlates with the ratio of red and far-red light. European Journal of Horticultural Science 81, S.243-247.
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Rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA) are potent antixodiants and show antimicrobial activity against many fungal plant pathogens. Their biosynthesis employs enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, a pathway that in mustard is regulated by phytochrome. If RA biosynthesis is regulated by phytochromes one would expect that the RA level correlated with the ratio of red to far-red light. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by growing basil and borage under different ratios of red to far-red light. CA and RA contents were measured with state of the art LC-MS/MS. Regression analysis showed that there is a significant inverse correlation of the ratio of red to far-red light and the content of RA, but not of CA. Hence, we conclude that RA biosynthesis is regulated by phytochrome.

Schwend, T.; Beck, M.; Prucker, D.; Peisl, S.; Mempel, H. (2016): Test of a PAR sensor-based, dynamic regulation of LED lighting in greenhouse cultivation of Helianthus annuus. . European Journal of Horticultural Science 81 (3), S.152-156.
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The intensity, and consequently the energy consumption, of light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be regulated. Therefore, LEDs can be implemented in new, dynamic energy saving strategies. Recently it has been shown that a program, which adjusts the intensity of a LED to the current solar PAR, reduced its energy consumption by 20%. The effect of a dynamic LED lighting on ornamental crops has not been tested. In this study we compared the growth of the model plant Helianthus annuus under a dynamic versus a static, control LED lighting. The data of this study show that the dynamic LED consumed 21% less energy than a control LED. However, there was no difference in crop quality or time to anthesis.

Schwend, T.; Kriedel, M.; Prucker, D.; Peisl, S.; Mempel, H. (2016): On the role of the light regime in root development of Euphorbia pulcherrima leafy stem cuttings. European Journal of Horticultural Science (EJHS) 81 (3), S.148-151.
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The development of primordial roots of Euphorbia pulcherrima cuttings coincides with a significant increase in photosynthesis. Therefore, Svenson and Davies (1990) suggested that supplementary lighting has no effect on root development of Euphorbia pulcherrima cuttings before primordial roots develop. In this study this hypothesis was experimentally challenged. Cuttings were cultivated with supplementary lighting from the day of sticking and compared to cuttings that were exposed to the same lighting after primordial root development. Our data show that both sets of cuttings developed equally well and both did better than cuttings that were cultivated without supplementary light. Moreover, the data show that light quality had a major impact on root number, length and weight. Therefore, this study confirms the hypothesis of Svenson and Davies (1990) and shows that the positive effect of supplementary lighting is partially mediated by photoreceptors.

2015

Schwend, T.; Prucker, D.; Mempel, H. (2015): Red light promotes compact growth of sunflowers. European Journal of Horticultural Science 80 (2), S.56-61.
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Light quality affects plant morphology. Hence, light quality is an important factor in the cultivation of ornamental plants. The recent advances in LED technology allow producers to adjust light quality to manipulate plant growth. For growers of ornamental plants the primary aim regarding plant morphology is to keep plants short and compact with attractive flowers. However, data on the effect of light quality on plant morphology are still sparse. This study provides data on the effect of different LED light regimes on height and fresh weight of shoot and flower, leaf area and compactness of the model plant Helianthus annuus. Regression analysis of these data shows that red light promotes compact growth.


Zeitschriftenbeiträge

2016

Schwend, T.; Prucker, D.; Haas, H.; Mempel, H. (2016): Wärmestrahlung, LED und Streckungswachstum. Gärtnerbörse (10), S.62-65.
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Wissenschaftliche Poster

2018

Suhl, J.; Schmidt, U.; Mempel, H.; Akyazi, G.; Dannehl, D. (2018): Entwicklung eines sensorbasierten intelligenten Gewächshaus-Managementsystems. BHGL Schriftenreihe Band 33 - 2018 33, S.151.

Wittmann, S.; Mempel, H. (2018): Anwendung der Chlorophyllfluoreszenz zur Darstellung von Salzstress an Lycopersicon esculentum L. 'Tastery'. Tagung der Deutschen Gartenbauwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft. BHGL-Schriftenreihe 33, S.150.

Wittmann, S.; Mempel, H. (2018): Auswirkung einer Mono- und Polychromatischen Belichtung auf den Wuchs und die Photosynthese von Lactuca Sativa. Tagung der Deutschen Gartenbauwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft. BHGL-Schriftenreihe 33, S.149.

2017

Schwend, T.; Mühlmann, C.; Beck, M.; Prucker, D.; Mempel, H. (2017): Regulation of greenhouse lighting with a PAR sensor. BHGL-Tagungsband 31/2015, S.119.


Presseberichte und Medienbeiträge

2021

Kausch, M. (2021): Vertical Farming: Aus der Cloud auf den Markt. Rundschau für den Lebensmittelhandel.
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Modernste Glashauskulturen versprechen bei Obst und Gemüse höchste Qualität und Schonung der Ressourcen. Die RUNDSCHAU informierte sich bei Forscherin Heike Mempel und bei Infarm in Berlin vor Ort.

Appel, J. (2021): Junges Gemüse: Sabine Wittmann - Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an der Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf. Gemüse 04/2021, S.36-37.
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Schäfer, A. (2021): Wenn der Salat im Supermarktregal wächst. Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (12), S.57.
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Etliche Nutzpflanzen lassen sich umweltfreundlicher und ressourcenschonender erzeugen, wenn sie nicht draußen wachsen, sondern in Industriehallen oder Supermärkten. Ein neuer Trend der urbanen Landwirtschaft.

Bettray, N. (2021): „Urban Vertical Farming“: Wenn Pflanzen nur mit Licht, Wasser und Nährstoffen wachsen. aktiv-online.de.
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Ist das die Zukunft der Landwirtschaft? Gemüse wächst nicht mehr auf Feldern, der Bauer pflügt seinen Acker nicht, sondern steht an Regalen und überwacht die Pflanzen per App? Wo das schon Realität ist, erklärt eine Expertin für Agrarwissenschaften.

Opetz, M. (2021): Digita­les Anbauen in der Stadt. Hompage: FERCHAU GmbH 2021.
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Der Trend zu Indoor-Pflanzregalen bringt die Landwirtschaft in Städte und Supermärkte. Digitale Plattformen steuern mittels Sensoren die wetterunabhängigen Farmen, die mit 90 Prozent weniger Wasser und ohne Pestizide auskommen. Die Crux: der hohe Stromverbrauch.

2020

Mempel, H. (2020): Indoor Vertical Farming – Ein innovatives System für die Pflanzenproduktion der Zukunft. Homepage: Stiftung Energie & Klimaschutz 2020.
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Das Indoor Vertical Farming spezialisiert sich auf die Produktion von Pflanzen in mehrlagigen, vertikal angeordneten Kultursystemen in einer geschlossenen Gebäudestruktur (Container, Lagerhallen, etc.). Die Lichtenergie für das Pflanzenwachstum wird über künstliche Belichtungssysteme wie LED-Module zur Verfügung gestellt. Von der Temperatur über die Luftfeuchte, Belichtungszeit und -intensität, dem Lichtspektrum bis hin zur Bewässerung kann alles gezielt eingestellt und optimiert werden. Sensoren und Kamerasysteme ermöglichen zudem das Wachstum und die pflanzliche Entwicklung in Echtzeit zu beobachten und kontinuierlich zu optimieren.

Beerlage, A. (2020): Indoor-Farming VITRINE STATT ACKER. Tegut 2020.
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Statt Sonne und Erde reichen beim Indoor-Farming elektrisches Licht, Kultursubstrat und eine Nährlösung zum Anbau von Pflanzen. Lässt sich so die Landwirtschaft revolotionieren?


Thorn, D. (2020): Vertical Farming ja, aber als Ergänzung - Inverview mit Expertin Heike Mempel. Interview: Bioland von Désirée Thorn, 06.04.2020 2020.
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Kommt unser Gemüse in Zukunft aus der Vertical Farm oder weiterhin vom Feld? Sowohl als auch, denkt Heike Mempel. Die Professorin für Gewächshaustechnik an der Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf sieht die Sache recht gelassen.

2019

Wolf, J.; Mempel, H. (2019): Die Senkrechtpflanzer. Zeitungsartikel: Die Zeit, von Justin Wolff 2019 (45).
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Ackerfläche wird knapp, doch Salat lässt sich gestapelt in Schränken und Regalen züchten. Ist die Technologie schon reif für die Produktion in großen Mengen? 

Bäumer, F. (2019): Landwirtschaft 4.0 Konzepte in Zeiten des Klimawandels. Sendebeitrag: Bayerischer Rundfunk, Sendung Abendschau, 30.08.2020 2019.
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Indoor-Farming unter LED-Beleuchtung, Microgreens vom Fensterbrett, Kräuter und Gemüse aus computergesteuerten Kleinstgärten - ist das auch die Lösung für mehr Regionalität und weniger Energie- und Düngerverbrauch? Wie sieht die Landwirtschaft 4.0 aus?

Radlmayr, G. (2019): Expertin der HSWT beantwortet häufig gestellte Fragen zum Thema Vertical Farming bzw. Indoor Farming. Forschungs-News HSWT.
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Die Bevölkerung wächst immer mehr. In Zukunftsszenarien rückt vor allem in Großstädten die verbrauchernahe Versorgung mit frischen Gemüseprodukten immer mehr in den Fokus. In Fachkreisen wird deshalb auch der Anbau von Gemüse mit den Systemen "Vertical Farming" und "Indoor Farming" intensiv diskutiert. Prof. Dr. Heike Mempel, die mit ihrem Team auf diesem Gebiet an der Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf (HSWT) forscht, beantwortet grundlegende Fragen zu diesen Anbausystemen und zu den spezifischen Forschungszielen an der HSWT.

Newsmeldung HSWT, .; Mempel, H. (2019): Expertin der HSWT beantwortet häufig gestellte Fragen zum Thema Vertical Farming bzw. Indoor Farming. Forschungs-News HSWT, 09.05.2019.
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HSWT (Pressemitteilung), .. (2019): Forschung für Urban Farming. DeGa Gartenbau 73 (1), S.6.

Eine umfassende Analyse geschlossener Indoor-Farming-Konzepte am Beispiel Growtainer ist wichtige Voraussetzung, um Anwendungsgebiete und Handlungsfelder für den Gartenbau zu erschließen.

2018

Medienbeitrag, . (2018): Landwirtschaft 4.0 - Konzepte in Zeiten des Klimawandels. Sendebeitrag in der BR-Abendschau vom 30.08.2019, online bis 29.08.2020.
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(2018): Forschung: Growtainer zur Indoor Produktion. Taspo 2018.
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Welche Bedingungen ermöglichen ein optimales Wachtum mit entsprechender Qualität bei der Indoor-Produktion? Im neuen Growtainer der Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf gehen Studierende und Wissenschaftler der Fakultät Gartenbau und Lebensmitteltechnologie dieser Frage nach, um den Mehrwert von Kunstlichtsystemen zu untersuchen.

Schnirch, P. (2018): Neue Verwendung für alten Seecontainer - Fensterloses Gewächshaus. Sueddeutsche Zeitung 2019.
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Die Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf hat ihren "Growtainer" zu Forschungszwecken in Betrieb genommen.

Redaktion, F. (2018): Gewächshaus und Forschungslabor - Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf hat nun für zehn Jahre einen Growtainer. Münchner Merkur 2018.
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Die Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf hat zu Forschungs- und Lehrzwecken einen "Growtainer" erhalten. Die Firma "Gemüsering Thüringen" finanziert für zehn Jahre das mobile Gewächshaus - einen voll isolierten Container, der speziell modifiziert wurde, um unabhängig von Umgebung und Klima optimale Produktionsbedingungen für vertikale Pflanzensysteme zu schaffen.

Schnirch, P. (2018): Forschen im Growtainer - Urban Gardening im Fokus. Süddeutsche Zeitung 2018.
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Hochschule experimentiert in einem voll isolierten mobilen Gewächshaus mit Pflanzen wie Salat und Kräutern.


Vorträge

2019

Goisser, S. (2019): Der Einsatz von Food-Scannern zu zerstörungsfreien Qualitätsmessung. Vortrag bei einer Weiterbildung für Erwerbsgärtner zum Thema "Neueste Entwicklungen im Unterglas-Gemüsebau" am 20.11.2019 an der Bayerischen Landesanstalt für Weinbau und Gartenbau (LWG) in Bamberg.


Applied Science Centre (ASC) Smart Indoor Farming

Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf

Applied Science Centre (ASC) Smart Indoor Farming
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