Sustainability and Forestry: 10,000 Years of Experience?

Here in Europe increasing demands on land use and nature protection are to be seen. The consumption of resources and energy by the ‚modern men‘ is far higher as a sustainable utilization would allow. Forests produce timber, drinking water and many more goods. Forests can be regarded as one example of a renewable resource. Instead of supporting this economic valuable and close to nature operating field attempts to shut-down forestry for nature protection are claimed by several groupings. Separating wooded areas into protected ones from those for production seems to be an attractive solution for militating aims.

Experiences in the United States of America reveal that the separation of utilization and protection does not solve entirely nor guarantee a sustainable land use. First Nations are living in the North American continent since tens of thousands of years, long before the ‚white men‘ invaded. Especially the Menominee First Nation in Keshena/Wisconsin is known nationwide for their sustainable way of living. What are they doing different?
Financially supported by the Bavarian Research Alliance first personal contacts to the Menominee Indian Tribe, the College of Menominee Nation, the U.S. Forest Service and the University of Minnesota could be established. Within a research project in collaboration with the Menominee Tribal Enterprise, the U.S. Forest Service and the College of Menominee Nation it could be proven that the way of utilization of timber in Northern hardwood stands on the Indian reservation is sustainable. Multifold and close to nature tended forests regenerate very well. Since thousands of years the Menominee act as ancestors told the young: respect nature. They believe men are part of nature and not something extra. Hence they think intensively about any use of resources, they highly respect nature in a total, they take regrowing goods for life but they don‘t touch the fundamental resources of life.

Their experience, their understanding of nature and their intensive social life can be a role model for the so called ‚modern men‘ in order to survive on the long run.

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Fig.: By single tree selection sustainably managed stand in the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, USA

Ausgangslage und Zielsetzungen

1. Lage in Bayern im Gegensatz zur Bundesrepublick

Das Bundeskabinett hat beschlossen, bis zum Jahr 2020 5 % der Waldfläche stillzulegen: (Nationale Strategie zur biologischen Vielfalt, 2007); "Segregation"
http://www.biologischevielfalt.de/fileadmin/NBS/documents/broschuere_biolog_vielfalt_strategie_bf.pdf; Seite 31

Bayen befürwortet im Gegensatz dazu das integrative Prinzip und lehnt die Segregation ab http://www.stmelf.bayern.de/wald/waldfunktionen/biologische-vielfalt/008914/index.php; auch bewirtschaftete Walder können naturschutzfachlich wertvoll sein (http://www.bmel.de/SharedDocs/Pressemitteilungen/2014/023-BL-Beirat-Waldpolitik.html).

Gibt es Beispiele erfolgreicher integrativer Waldnutzung ohne Artenverluste?
Die "Waldindianer" des Stammes Menominee in Wisconsin, USA, leben seit mehreren tausend Jahren nachhaltig, angeblich ohne Artenverlust und ohne Schutzgebiete.

2. Das Projekt soll folgendes ergeben:

2.1 Substantieller fachlicher Kontakt zur forstlichen Forschung und Praxis in Nordamerika
2.2 Prüfung einer tragfähigen wissenschaftlichen Kooperation durch ein konkretes Forschungsprojekt mit direktem Praxisbezug.
2.3 Abklaren ggf. weiterführender Projekte mit dem Ziel "Nachhaltigkeit der Waldbehandlung (Waldbau)"
2.4 Kontakt zu Ureinwohnern und deren Verständnis der Landnutzung
2.5 Kontakt zur bedeutenden Naturschutzorganisation Aldo-Leopold Fundation
2.6 ggf. Projektanträge zur angewandten (Waldbau-) Forschung + z.B. FTP (http://www.forestplatform.org/en/research-funding); S 13 ISIB; 04b 2015: lmproved forest management models, ode1· Horizon 2020-Programm + z.B. Kohlenstoffrelevanz integrativer Waldnutzung + bessere Ressourcennutzung; https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/find-your-area