Rani, M.; Cameron, R.; Schroth, O.; Lange, E. (2022)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science 36 (8).
In developing countries, data gaps are common and lead to uncertainties in land cover change analysis. This study demonstrates how to mitigate uncertainties in modeling land change in the Ci Kapundung upper water catchment area by comparing the outcomes of two simulation phases. A conventional cellular automata (CA)–Markov model was complemented with a multilayer perceptron (MLP) to project future land cover maps in the study area. The CA–Markov–MLP model results in high uncertainties in forested sites where a data gap is apparent in the input data (land cover maps and driver variables) and parameters. The results show that the model accuracy is improved from 47.90% in the first phase to 81.36% in the second phase. Both first and second phases integrate six demographic–economic and environmental drivers in the modeling, but the second phase also incorporates an updating and backdating analysis to revise the base-maps. This study suggests that uncertainties can be mitigated by linking such base-map revision process with the updating and backdating analyses using remote sensing datasets retrieved at different times.
Zellermayr, A.; Schroth, O.; Ewald, J. (2021)
Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutz der Bergwelt (München) 86, S. 187-216.
Wald unterliegt seit jeher ständigen Veränderungen. Besonders in den Alpen überlagern sich natürliche Einflussfaktoren mit der menschlichen Nutzung. Bedingt durch Standort und Relief wurden auch im Landkreis Garmisch-Partenkirchen die Bergwälder unterschiedlich stark beeinflusst. So kam es in der Vergangenheit durch hohe Wildbestände und intensiver Waldweide zu Schäden an den Bergwäldern, was eine Verringerung der Waldflächen zur Folge hatte. Wie sich die Wälder und die Landschaft bis heute entwickelten, wurde mit Hilfe eines Luftbildvergleiches von 1945 und 2018 dargestellt. Dabei wurden vier repräsentative Projektgebiete in der Flyschzone und den Kalkalpen ausgewählt, um sowohl menschliche als auch natürliche Einflussfaktoren (Nährstoffverfügbarkeit, Wasserspeicherkapazität) und deren Auswirkung auf die Wälder zu untersuchen. Mit Hilfe des Geoinformationssystems (GIS) ArcMap 10.6 erfolgte eine überwachte Klassifikation (Supervised Classification) nach Waldflächen (sämtliche Baumarten und Gebüsche) und sonstigen Flächen (Gebäude, Gewässer, landwirtschaftliche Flächen, usw.) mit nachfolgender Bearbeitung und einer erreichten Genauigkeit von über 85 % für Waldflächen über 1.000 m2. Der nachfolgende Vergleich ergab nach Standortfaktoren differenzierte Entwicklungen im Landkreis Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Durch eine Reduzierung der Almnutzung und eine stärkere Regulation des Schalenwildes wurde eine Netto-Vergrößerung der Waldflächen gefördert, welcher schwerpunktmäßig auf den fruchtbaren Mergeln der Flyschzone realisiert wurde. Auf kalkalpinen Gesteinen halten sich Zuwachs und Verluste die Waage. Auch lässt sich ein Anstieg der von subalpinen Latschengebüschen und Fichtenwäldern gebildeten Waldgrenze erkennen, welcher der rezenten Klimaerwärmung zuzuordnen ist. Die Ergebnisse zeigen das Potenzial einer teilautomatisierten Auswertung von Luftbildern für die Zeitreihenanalyse, wenn auch angesichts der komplexen Überlagerung der menschlichen und natürlichen Triebkräfte, die Fernerkundung mit Geodaten zum Standort und Landnutzung hinterlegt werden müssen. Gerade im Hinblick auf den Klimawandel und dessen Herausforderungen ist dies Voraussetzung, um landschaftsökologische Deutungen und praxisbezogene Aussagen treffen zu können.
Schroth, O.; Mertelmeyer, L. (2020)
Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture 2020 (5), S. 558-566.
In many countries, landscape planning is under pressure from many sides – many neo-liberal and conservative governments consider it as an unnecessary restriction to the market, many stakeholders and members of the public consider landscape planning as technocratic and without relevance for their everyday life. While it is a political issue to address ideological opposition to landscape planning, planners can improve understandability and transparency of landscape plans. As demonstrated by von Haaren et al. (2005), interactive landscape vis- ualization embedded in participatory processes can facilitate understandability and accessi- bility of landscape plans. This paper will further develop the approach of using interactive online maps and add multimedia and storytelling techniques to better communicate the aes- thetic component of landscape and to increase the acceptability and accessibility of landscape plans. The European Landscape Convention confirms the importance of involving commu- nities in planning, designing and managing our landscape resource.
Schrapp, L.; Tobisch, C.; Schroth, O.; Blum, P. (2019)
gis.Science 32 (3), S. 77-86.
Die Auswahl und Verfügbarkeit offener Geodaten, d. h. Geodaten, die frei genutzt, weiterverbreitet und weiterverwendet werden dürfen, nimmt stetig zu. Die bekannteste auf offene Geodaten spezialisierte Initiative ist das OpenStreetMap(OSM)-Projekt. Offenen Geodaten werden in vielen Bereichen der Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft großes Potenzial zugeschrieben. Diese Veröffentlichung – basierend auf dem Forschungsprojekt „Grenzüberschreitendes Konzept für Naturschutz und Naturerlebnis im Gebiet des Böhmischen Walds und der Oberpfalz“ – soll Möglichkeiten und Einschränkungen offener Geodaten am Beispiel von OSM für planungs- und tourismusbezogene Fragestellungen näher untersuchen und kritisch bewerten. Eine wichtige Frage stellt dabei die Qualität offener Geodaten dar, die von Laien erhoben wurden. Für diese Fragestellung wurde eine Methode entwickelt, wie sich Vollständigkeit (completeness) und Korrektheit (correctness) von OSM-Daten mit öffentlichen Daten systematisch vergleichen lassen. Die Anwendung dieser Methode auf drei linienbasierte Nutzungskategorien (Radwege, Wanderwege, „Skiwege“) zeigt für das Fallbeispiel Cham einen hohen Korrektheitsgrad (80-90 %) und einen relativ niedrigen Vollständigkeitsgrad (5-35 %). Infolge von Lücken und Inkonsistenzen bei der Attribuierung werden weitere Optimierungsmöglichkeiten aufgelistet sowie die Anwendung von OSM-Daten für tourismusbezogene Fragestellungen diskutiert.
Carvalho , R.; Schroth, O.; Konkoly-Gyuró, E.; Hermes, J.; Boll, T.; von Haaren, C. (2019)
Landscape Planning with Ecosystem Services. Landscape Series, vol 24. Springer, Dordrecht 24, S. 221-252.
This chapter explores established theoretical and empirical work to identify possible indicators to represent landscape aesthetics capacity (LAC) in landscape planning. Throughout this chapter we argue that visual concepts from landscape perception/preferences studies (formed either on an individual or collective basis), together with experiences from implementing Landscape Character Assessments (LCA) throughout Europe, might help in developing frameworks for the assessment of Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES). When compared to provisioning or maintenance/regulating ecosystem services (ES), frameworks for the application of CES are lagging in development. Landscape aesthetics capacity is conceptualized here as delivered ES, which are central to the everyday life of people. The concepts we focus on are derived from landscape preference studies. The empirical cases explored are from LCAs in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hungary, from the Landscape Preferences Spatial Framework in Portugal, and from a formal method for mapping and assessing the visual landscape in Germany. There is also a brief overview of current methodological approaches and suggested indicators regarding the utilization of CES. Finally, the chapter emphasises the ways in which landscape aesthetics capacities can be incorporated into planning, by selecting a group of robust indicators (based on theory as well as on our case studies) that could be applied in different European countries.
Rani, M.; Lange, E.; Cameron, R.; Schroth, O. (2019)
2019 (4), S. 33-41.
Simulations and modelling are often used in many studies to assess and visualise the effects of landscape changes on environment. However, only a few studies have been conducted to assess landscape interventions to sustain ecosystem services, including hydrological processes. This paper presents an iterative and interactive process to generate landscape planning for the Ci Kapundung upper water catchment area, Bandung Basin, Indonesia, based on two development scenarios. The land change model was coupled with a hydrological model to assess the influence of land cover changes on flood risk in Bandung Basin. The result shows that the overland flow at three observation points is affected by the land cover, topography, and soil properties. Outputs from the iterative hydrologic sim- ulations suggested that conifers could be planted in the proposed river buffers in the case study area to reduce the volume of runoff flowing to the Ci Kapundung River.
Stratton, C.; Schroth, O. (2019)
Technical Information Note. Landscape Institute: London 04/2019.
Hydraulic fracturing (also called fracking or sometimes fraccing; in this Technical Note the terms are used synonymously) is a way of extracting gas (and sometimes oil) from shale rock. Both terms refer to the injection of water, sand and chemicals into the rock at high pressure to break the shale and release the gas, a process sometimes called well stimulation.
Schmidkunz, M.; Schroth, O.; Zeile, P.; Kias, U. (2019)
REAL CORP 2019 , S. 597-604.
Road safety is an essential design requirement in planning processes of cycling infrastructure. An evaluation criterion for safety are accident statistics, but this criterion lacks reliability with regard to cycling accidents because many accidents are not documented. In addition, an exclusive view of accident statistics only is inadequate because road safety also includes aspects such as objective as well as subjective safety of cyclists. In order to consider the cyclist’s perspective in the planning of cycling facilities, an exploratory study, based on the concept of the Urban Emotions Inititative, was carried out in Augsburg and presented in this contribution. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cycling infrastructure on the cyclist's stress and the perception of safety. As a result, 1040 stress situations of 26 cyclists were measured over a distance of 5.0 km using biostatistical measurement technology. 347 stress situations refer directly to road infrastructure and perceived safety. In addition, data from traffic and urban planning as well as other self-collected data regarding objective traffic safety were used to assess the cycling infrastructure. The analysis of the study shows that the objective analysis of road infrastructure and the subjective sense of safety of the cyclists are in many cases corresponding. An interesting result was that stress situations can differ in the same types of cycling facilities. A conclusion for stress and perception of safety is that constructive detail is more detached from stress triggers than the type of cycling facilities in general. An important issue is surface design. Bumps, damaged pavement and tram rails are often stressful, especially in combination with other road users. There are no clear differences in the frequency of conflicts between car drivers, pedestrians and cyclists. The number of stressful situations, in which a pedestrian was involved, was slightly predominant. Stress situations were caused through inappropriate use of cycle lanes, problems with orientation, confusing paths and a lack of acceptance of some types of cycle facilities. Base for this contribution is the bachelor thesis Road Safety from Cyclists´ Perspective.
Liu, M.; Schroth, O. (2019)
Sustainability 11, 1809 (6), S. 1-16.
Building on the mystery/complexity/legibility/coherence model of Kaplan and Kaplan (1989) and up-to-date landscape visualization techniques, this paper presents a case study analyzing people’s aesthetic preferences for scenes with varying levels of enclosure created through vegetation. Participants were asked to view 48 computer-generated urban park scenes with different levels of enclosure and to rate them for three aesthetic preference factors: coherence, complexity, and legibility. The results are as follows: (1) If the visual and/or physical setting is enclosed, participants will give lower ratings for legibility than in open scenes. (2) Physically open scenes are rated as more coherent than physically enclosed scenes. (3) Participants rate complexity for physically enclosed scenes lower than for physically open scenes. It is concluded that enclosure as a predictor variable for landscape preference has a practical significance for future urban landscape research and designs.
Rani, M.; Lange, E.; Cameron, R.; Schroth, O. (2018)
JoDLA − Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture 2018 (3), S. 23-33.
Landscape change in the Ci Kapundung upper water catchment area over recent decades has increased the volume of rainfall runoff, increasing the incidence of flooding in the Bandung Basin. At the same time, climate change affects rainfall variability in Indonesia, causing higher frequencies of extreme rainfall and drought in almost all regions of the country. This study develops and assesses four scenarios for the future spatial plan in the catchment area, which is part of a research project on flood risk in the Bandung Basin. The scenarios were created based on recent land use changes within the area, current spatial policies, ecological design principles, and the geodesign framework. All scenarios were simulated using Land Change Modeler (LCM), which applies a combined cellular automata and Mar- kov model (CA-Markov), and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, to project future land- scape forms for 2030. In this simulation, the results were assessed to see the variations of land cover composition. CA-Markov models have been widely used to predict urban growth. Modeling applica- tions for forest cover change simulation have rarely been explored. Results from LCM show that there is no significant difference in the percentages of developed areas, mixed plant communities, and coni- fers in 2030 in all scenarios. However, the spatial arrangement of land cover varies with each scenario. In the first scenario, for example, the disperse settlement pattern is projected to occur in the watershed in 2030, including in the areas with steep slopes and near the rivers, whereas in other scenarios, specific areas are restricted to be built. The study suggests that further analysis of hydrological impacts of each scenario is needed to ascertain which scenario can effectively reduce flood risk.
Schroth, O.; Wang, P.; Ballal, H. (2017)
JoDLA − Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture 2017 (2), S. 125-135.
More than 109 million people already live in the Jingjinji Area, the greater metropolitan area around Bejing and the number of inhabitants as well as land take for new housing is increasing dramat- ically. At the same time, the region is under threat from climate change, especially through desertifica- tion. The government has identified shelterbelt forests as appropriate adaptation measures. However, the designation of new shelterbelts has to be integrated in the wider regional planning process for the Jingjinji Area and this pilot study explores the potential of the geodesign framework and the Ge- odesignhub online platform for this monumental task. Four development scenarios and two evaluation models with constraint maps were set up a prior. Then, we conducted two workshops, partly remotely, with 12 participating landscape architecture PG and PhD students across the world. In terms of the planning task, the workshop resulted in a synthesis map of how housing, industry and commerce, the 2020 Winter Olympics, transport infrastructure, green infrastructure and particularly shelterbelts can be located in the Jingjinji area. Parallel, a process evaluation was conducted resulting in valuable feed- back regarding the strengths and limitations of the geodesign framework and online tools for this case study.
Rani, M.; Schroth, O.; Cameron, R.; Lange, E. (2017)
GISRUK 2017 2017.
Currently, there is no generally accepted topographic correction method to be applied in different landscape contexts. This study derived land cover maps in Ci Kapundung and Ci Sangkuy upper water catchment areas, which are located in a rugged terrain in mountainous areas in Bandung Basin, Indonesia, using object-based classification of satellite images. Under these conditions, a modified sun-canopy-sensor correction (SCS+C) was chosen as topographic correction method. Its performance was evaluated based on the Overall Accuracy (OA). Result shows that the correction method could improve the accuracies to 77% and 87.58% for the first and second case studies respectively.
Schroth, O.; Ju, Q. (2016)
REAL CORP 2016 Proceedings 2016, S. 473-479.
In recent years, modeling tools have been developed that allow quantifying and comparing the microclimatic impacts of different design options, e.g. modeling wind tunnel effects or surface heat. Our research for open spaces as an essential part of smart cities investigates how landscape architecture designs, e.g. tree planting strategies, green roofs, etc. will interact with the microclimate and natural ventilation or air flow. Addressing open spaces is also an important connecting element across the various disciplines involved and will facilitate close interdisciplinary collaboration. Interdisciplinary collaboration could address the interrelation between outdoor spaces and indoor conditions, public stakeholder involvement, and the risks through extreme weather events. The expected results will inform sustainable landscape design solutions and increase resilience to climate change. We started with a case study in modeling the micro-climate for the new campus masterplan of the University of Sheffield, currently developed by Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, Grant Associates, & AECOM (2014). Peng & Elwan (2011) had already used ENVI-met to model the impact of climate change on building temperatures; Wong & Jusuf (2008) used GIS. After testing different software packages, we decided to use Autodesk Vasari in comparison, which is well integrated with other Autodesk products. First, past and current wind speeds were collected to calibrate the model. Applying our modelling approach provided figures on how the proposed masterplan design will change the local microclimate on campus and predicted effects on wind speeds on central parts of the campus. The results show that street trees have a significant influence on the air flow and that improved street tree design can increase natural ventilation mitigating the UHI effect on campus. The model also showed some of the interactions between buildings and trees although the used software was rather limited with regard to different vegetation types. The presentation will conclude with suggestions for further research and for future software development to improve the accuracy of microclimate and air flow modeling in smart cities.
Jian, L.; Kang, J.; Schroth, O. (2015)
Environmental Impact Assessment Review 55, S. 59-73.
Large scale transportation projects can adversely affect the visual perception of environmental quality and re- quire adequate visual impact assessment. In this study, we investigated the effects of the characteristics of the road project and the character of the existing landscape on the perceived visual impact ofmotorways, and devel- oped a GIS-based prediction model based on the findings. An online survey using computer-visualised scenes of different motorway and landscape scenarios was carried out to obtain perception-based judgements on the vi- sual impact.Motorway scenarios simulated included the baseline scenario without road, originalmotorway,mo- torways with timber noise barriers, transparent noise barriers and tree screen; different landscape scenarios were created by changing land cover of buildings and trees in three distance zones. The landscape content of each scenewasmeasured in GIS. The result shows that presence of amotorway especially with the timber barrier significantly decreases the visual quality of the view. The resulted visual impact tends to be lowerwhere it is less visually pleasant with more buildings in the view, and can be slightly reduced by the visual absorption effect of the scattered trees between themotorway and the viewpoint. Based on the survey result, eleven predictorswere identified for the visual impact prediction modelwhichwas applied in GIS to generate maps of visual impact of motorways in different scenarios. The proposed predictionmodel can be used to achieve efficient and reliable as- sessment of visual impact of motorways.
Schroth, O.; Pond, E.; Sheppard, S. (2015)
Landscape and Urban Planning 142, S. 147-158.
This study synthesizes two evaluations of a local climate change planning process in a rural town in British Columbia (Canada), which was supported through landscape visualizations. First, the impact of the visualizations, based on scientific environmental modeling and presented in three different presentation formats, verbal/visual presentation, posters and a virtual globe, was evaluated with regard to immediate impacts during the process. Second, the long-term impacts on decision-making and actual outcomes were evaluated in a retrospective evaluation 22 months after the end of the initial planning process. Two results are highlighted: according to the quantitative pre-/post-questionnaires, the visualizations contributed to increased awareness and understanding. Most importantly, the retrospective evaluation indicated that the process informed policy, operational and built changes in Kimberley, in which the landscape visualizations played a role. The post interviews with key decision-makers showed that they remembered most of the visualizations and some decision-makers were further using them, particularly the posters. The virtual globe seemed to be not a “sustainable” display format suitable for formal decision-making processes such as council meetings though. That may change with the further mainstreaming of visualization technologies or mobile devices. Until then, we recommend using display formats that can be re-used following a specific planning event such as an Open House, to ensure on-going support for effective decision-making over the longer-term.
Schroth, O.; Lavalle, A.; Deepti, M.; Sheppard, S. (2015)
Digital Landscape Architecture 2015 2015, S. 336-343.
The paper highlights the landscape related aspects of the development of a so-called “serious game” about climate change and present feedback from high school student focus groups and expert interviews with teachers. Conclusions are drawn for the further development of landscape visualizations, e.g. that established technologies in the gaming industry such as the Unity3D engine provide affordable and easily usable tools for dynamic and interactive landscape visualization. The focus groups also show that a serious game can engage high school students with environmental and landscape topics on a high level of complexity and that the game has contributed to raising their awareness about the local impacts of climate change. However, it is too early to say whether such a game can lead to changes in behavior as well.
Schroth, O.; Lavalle, A.; Deepti, M.; Sheppard, S. (2015)
Herausgeber: E. Buhmann, S. Ervin, & M. Pietsch (Eds.), Digital Landscape Architecture 2015 at Hochschule Anhalt. Wichmann Verlag: Offenbach & Berlin, S. 336–343.
Jones, K.; Devillers, R.; Bédard, Y.; Schroth, O. (2014)
International Journal of Digital Earth 7 (10), S. 771–788.
Virtual globes (VGs) allow Internet users to view geographic data of heterogeneous quality created by other users. This article presents a new approach for collecting and visualizing information about the perceived quality of 3D data in VGs. It aims at improving users' awareness of the quality of 3D objects. Instead of relying on the existing metadata or on formal accuracy assessments that are often impossible in practice, we propose a crowd-sourced quality recommender system based on the five-star visualization method successful in other types of Web applications. Four alternative five-star visualizations were implemented in a Google Earth-based prototype and tested through a formal user evaluation. These tests helped identifying the most effective method for a 3D environment. Results indicate that while most websites use a visualization approach that shows a ‘number of stars’, this method was the least preferred by participants. Instead, participants ranked the ‘number within a star’ method highest as it allowed reducing the visual clutter in urban settings, suggesting that 3D environments such as VGs require different design approaches than 2D or non-geographic applications. Results also confirmed that expert and non-expert users in geographic data share similar preferences for the most and least preferred visualization methods.
Schroth, O.; Angel, J.; Dulic, A.; Sheppard, S. (2014)
Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture 8 (4), S. 413–432.
Climate change is an urgent problem with implications registered notonly globally, but also on national and local scales. It is a particularly challenging case of environmental communication because its main cause, greenhouse gas emissions, is invisible. The predominant approach of making climate change visible is the use of iconic, often affective, imagery. Literature on the iconography of climate change shows that global iconic motifs, such as polar bears, have contributed to a public perception of the problem as spatially and temporally remote. This paper proposesan alternative approach to global climate change icons by focusing on recognizable representations of local impacts within an interactive game environment. This approach was implemented and tested in a research project based on the municipality of Delta, British Columbia. A major outcome of the research is Future Delta, an interactive educational gamefeaturing 3-D visualizations and simulation tools for climate change adaptation and mitigation future scenarios. The empirical evaluation is based on quantitative pre/post game play questionnaires with 24 students and 10 qualitative expert interviews. The findings support the assumption that interactive 3D imagery is effective in communicating climate change. The quantitative post-questionnaires particularly highlight a shift in support of more local responsibility.
Schroth, O. (2014)
Invited keynote at the E-CLIC Conference, Edinburgh, UK 2014.