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Optimization of Callus and Cell Suspension Cultures of Lycium schweinfurthii for Improved Production of Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activity

Smetanska, I.; Mohammed, D. (2022)

MDPI horticulturae 8, 394 (5), S. 1-17.
DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8050394


Open Access
 

Lycium schweinfurthii is a traditional medicinal plant grown in the Mediterranean region. As it is used in folk medicine to treat stomach ulcers, it took more attention as a source of valuable secondary metabolites. The in vitro cultures of L. schweinfurthii could be a great tool to produce secondary metabolites at low costs. The presented study aimed to introduce and optimize a protocol for inducing callus and cell suspension cultures as well as estimating phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and antioxidant activity in the cultures of the studied species. Three plant growth regulators (PGRs) were supplemented to MS medium solely or in combination to induce callus from leaf explants. The combination between 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthyl acetic acid (NAA) induced callus in all explants regardless of the concentration. The highest fresh weight of callus (3.92 g) was obtained on MS medium fortified with 1 mg L−1 of both 2,4-D and NAA (DN1) after 7 weeks of culture. DN1 was the best medium for callus multiplication regarding the increase in fresh weight and size of callus. Otherwise, the highest phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals were of callus on MS fortified with 2 mg L−1 NAA (N2). The cell suspension cultures were cultivated on a liquid N2 medium with different sucrose concentrations of 5–30 g L−1 to observe the possible effects on cells’ multiplication and secondary metabolite production. The highest fresh and viable biomass of 12.01 g was obtained on N2 containing 30 g L−1 sucrose. On the other hand, the cell cultures on N2 medium of 5 and 30 g L−1 sucrose produced phenolics and flavonoids, and revealed 

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Soil nitrogen and water management by winter-killed catch crops

Gentsch, N.; Heuermann, D.; Boy, J.; Schierding, S.; von Wirén, N.; Schweneker, D....

SOIL 8, S. 269-281.
DOI: 10.5194/soil-8-269-2022


Open Access
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Ukraine-Krieg: Fallen jetzt die GPS-Lenksysteme an Traktoren aus?

Hoffmann, L.; Noack, P. (2022)

agrarheute.com, 05.03.2022.

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Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources

Smetanska, I.; Sytar , O. (2022)

MDPI-Molecules 2022, 27,6.
DOI: 10.3390/molecules27061929


Open Access
 

In recent decades, there has been a huge level of interest in bioactive compounds fromnatural sources. The large range of plant biodiversity means that there is a huge varietyof bioactive compounds. Bioactive compounds are mostly specific secondary metaboliteswith antioxidant, inflammatory, immunomodulative potential, antimicrobial properties, etc.The bioactive compounds of classes of terpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, stilbenes,etc., alongside the description of some of their mechanisms of action, are important tostudy. It is important to note that the use of plant extracts complicates the identificationof the effects of antiviral, antimicrobial or other capacities of separate biologically activecompounds; additionally, the effects of activities of solute compounds in extracts can causean additive (the synergistic effect) or antogonistic effect to come into play. In that context,the current issue is open for scientific research on the description of novel isolated bioactivecompounds, as well as some of their unknown effects, which are a priority for the appliedneeds of humans in different areas of life.

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Deutscher Alpenverein [@deutscheralpenverein] (13. Februar) Du bist gern in den Bergen unterwegs und interessierst dich für Bäume? 🌲🌳Dann kannst du ein aktuelles Forschungsprojekt zur Baumgrenze ... [Instagram-Post]

Medienbeitrag, . (2022)

Instagram https://www.instagram.com/p/CZ6NP7TObw-/.

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Deutscher Alpenverein e.V. (DAV) (13. Februar) Du bist gern in den Bergen unterwegs und interessierst dich für Bäume? Dann kannst du ein aktuelles Forschungsprojekt zur Baumgrenze ... [Facebook-Post]

Medienbeitrag, . (2022)

[Foto enthalten] [Status-Update] https://www.facebook.com/deutscher.alpenverein.dav/.

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Deutsches Schwarzbuntes Niederungsrind (DSN) - Ressourcennutzungseffizienz, Leistungs- und Gesundheitsmerkmale

Meier, S. (2021)

Vortrag Netzwerk Fokus Tierwohl, Thema "Der Weg zu langlebigeren Kühen – Fütterungsmanagement, Zucht und Leistungsobergrenzen", Online, 8. Dezember 2021.


Potential Industrial Applications of Bambara Groundnut

Ade-Omowaye , B.; Smetanska, I.; Mamdouh, D. (2021)

Food and Potential Industrial Applications of Bambara Groundnut 2021.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-73920-1_12

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Ökonomischer Zuchtwert für die Doppelnutzungsrasse DSN

Meier, S. (2021)

Fachgespräch „Erhaltung/Biodiversität in kleinen Nutztierrassen“, Online-Meeting, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 2021.


Weed Control in Parsley: a Comparative Photometric Analysis

Helfert, J.; Sailer, F.; Smetanska, I. (2021)

XII. International Agriculture Symposium AGROSYM 2021. Bosnia and Herzegovina 2021.


Genetic Stability, Phenolic, Flavonoid, Ferulic Acid Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Micropropagated Lycium schweinfurthii Plants

Mohammed, D.; Gabr, A.; Smetanska, I. (2021)

Plants 10, 2089 (10), S. 1-16.
DOI: 10.3390/plants10102089


Open Access
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Using Thermal Imaging to Detect Tail Tip Alterations in Dairy Cows

Meier, S.; Abel, K.; Kremer-Rücker, P. (2021)

72nd Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science, 30. August - 03. September, Davos 2021 (27), S. 157.
DOI: 10.3920/978-90-8686-918-3

 

In fattening bulls tail tip alterations are described as health issues associated with (sub)acute rumen acidosis and lameness. Investigations of dairy cows’ tail tips are scarce; however, there is evidence that tail tip alterations occur as a result of intensive feeding management and metabolic imbalance. In June 2020, we investigated 68 German Holstein cows for tail tip alterations using a handheld thermal camera (FLIR® T1030). Thermal images of the shaved tail tip were taken from two different perspectives: (p1) tail in front of the udder and (p2) held tail in front of the ground. Additionally, all cows were evaluated for any kind of tail tip alterations, body condition score (BCS), and locomotion score (LMS). Milk yield data, resulting from latest performance testing were collected, too. Images were analysed using FLIR Tool+ and a generalised linear model was used to correct measured temperatures for fixed effects. The prevalence of tail tip alterations, regardless the findings, was 94%. Raw temperature data showed high correlations of r² = 0.79 for maximum and average temperature and r² = 0.70 for minimum temperature between p1 and p2 (P < 0.001). Tail tip necroses and BCS > 3 decreased the tail’s temperature, while swelling of the tail tip increased its temperature. Average, maximum and minimum temperatures for perspective 1 and 2 were 34.05 (±0.16) and 33.78 (±0.20) °C, 35.46 (±0.11) and 35.52 (±0.11) °C, and 30.30 (±0.30) and 29.22 (±0.38) °C, respectively. Temperatures of necrotic tissues (n = 4) decreased on average by 8.38 °C compared to the average temperature and were close to the minimum. We concluded thermal imaging can be used for the detection of alterations regarding the tail’s temperature, which could allow an early-warning system for swellings, probably caused by inflammation and possibly resulting in necroses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the praevalence of tail tip alterations in dairy cows on larger samples and to clarify their etiology. However, thermal imaging can be used as an early-warning system for tail alterations. Each early-warning system regarding health issues, improves animal welfare as it allows adapting management strategies early.

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HSWT-Forschungsprojekt zu Baulücken und Wohneigentum kooperiert mit drei ländlichen Kommunen in Westmittelfranken

Newsmeldung HSWT, . (2021)

Newsmeldung auf der Webseite der HSWT, online am 28.06.2021.

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Physiological and biochemical bases of biotechnology for obtaining phenolic compounds from plant in vitro cultures

Smetanska, I. (2021)

, S. 1-525.


Development of a Tail Scoring as Health Indicator for Dairy Cows

Meier, S.; Abel, K.; Kremer-Rücker, P. (2021)

Proceedings of the 44th ICAR Annual Conference virtually held from Leeuwarden, NL 2021 (25), S. 1-6.

 

Research investigating necrotic tail tips in dairy cows resulting in necrotic tissues is scarce. However, there is evidence that in dairy cattle tail tip necroses exist with high prevalence. In piglets, the latest research described tail and ear necroses not because of tail and ear biting only, but because of swine inflammation and necrosis syndrome (SINS). Besides tails and ears, SINS includes inflammation of claws, heels, and teats. In cattle, tail tip necroses are described mainly in fattening bulls. As known so far, these findings are often discussed related to slatted flooring, intensive housing systems and management strategies. However, an association with subacute rumen acidosis and laminitis is described.

In order to investigate what kind of and how often tail tip alterations appear in dairy cattle, data of 87 German Holstein dairy cows were collected over a period of 12 months. All cows were evaluated for tail tip alterations, body condition score (BCS), and locomotion score (LMS) every two weeks. In addition, milk yield data resulting from performance testing were included. Thermographic images of the tails were taken once. Firstly, all kind of tail tip alterations were described and collected. After 6 months, we categorized the observed alterations and developed a tail scoring system. The scoring for each specified trait (tail tip, tail ring) ranged from 0 to 4.

The overall prevalence for tail alterations was 94%. Especially tail tip alterations had a constantly high prevalence of 56%. Cows affected by an increased average tail tip score, showed higher locomotion scores compared to others (P = 0.02). The prevalence of ring-like tail alterations increased from first to second lactation cows from 9 to 46%. Regarding the BCS, lighter cows showed higher scores due to ring-like alterations than heavier cows (P = 0.054). The most often occurring anomalies of the tail were sports or scurf (21.6%), followed by verruca-like mass (10.2%), swelling (8.4%), and thinning (4.3%).

The results and especially the scoring system can serve as a template for further studies considering larger samples sizes, to investigate prevalence for tail necroses and other tail anomalies in different herds and management systems. It was hypothesized, that an inflammatory condition in dairy cows showing up in altered/necrotic tail tips or rings exists, which is in relationship with claw disorders indicated by lameness. If so, the tail score of a cow could be used as health indicator to evaluate the health status in dairy production systems.

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The influence of yeast extract and jasmonic acid on phenolic acids content of in vitro hairy root cultures of Orthosiphon aristatus

Smetanska, I.; Mohammed, D.; Tonkha, O. (2021)

Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 15, S. 1-8.
DOI: 10.5219/1508


Open Access
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Wirklich reif für die Praxis? Teil 1: Wie praxistauglich ist die teilflächenspezifische N-Düngung bereits?

Wilmes, R.; Bauer, B.; Braun, K.; Breunig, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Meyer, T....

Bayrisches Landwirtschaftliches Wochenblatt (18), S. 36-38.


Hier mehr, dort weniger Maiskörner

Wilmes, R.; Bauer, B.; Braun, K.; Breunig, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Meyer, T....

Bayrisches Landwirtschaftliches Wochenblatt (22), S. 38-40.


Feldgrenzen auf den Zentimeter bestimmen

Wilmes, R.; Bauer, B.; Braun, K.; Breunig, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Meyer, T....

Bayrisches Landwirtschaftliches Wochenblatt (27), S. 41-42.


In friedlicher Mission

Wilmes, R.; Bauer, B.; Braun, K.; Breunig, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Meyer, T....

Bayrisches Landwirtschaftliches Wochenblatt (32), S. 38-39.


Fakultät Landwirtschaft, Lebensmittel und Ernährung

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